The Port of Bilbao, launches a competition at the end of 2009 in order to build the new Terminal of Cruise ships in Bilbao. A damp city, with a metallic memory, of shipyards, cranes, postindustrial areas, the suspension bridge of Portugalete…
We start from a metallic orthogonal prism, working in it, as it was a sculpture. The building starts to open to the sea, with a big crystal façade.
To the south, to the city, enclosure is much more opaque, framing the arrival square and attracting the northern light that comes in the building through the big skylights. The project starts to be structured in several containers with different volumes and length. The new Terminal runs in one floor, but it´s section is shaped by big skylights picking up northern light.
We start to play with the idea of full and empty, by reference to the Basque sculptors [Chillida, Oteiza], introducing the programme for the Terminal in some of the containers, and keeping the empty space. Spaces where you can wait ship arrival.
We propose different spaces for different waiting forms: several types of lounges with different orientations, spreading spaces and open-air zones.
Outside we ordered the arrival space, the big parking, where several light lines illuminate the building, making it a reference from the city.
In order to reduce construction time, [The building have to be in use in six months to receive the first cruise ship] we decide to make steel industrialized construction, building most part of the building in a factory, and transporting it by road from Asturias to Bilbao, where the building was assembled.
In this case, enclosure panels are performed by two steel sheets with an 80mm rockwool panel inside as insulation. These panels, with a great hygrothermal performance, provide inner space of optimal comfort conditions.
The building is developed around some basic parameters:
- Factory construction [Industrialisation]
- Transportation and assembled on site
- Rational Sustainability
- Light architecture
- Steel 100% recyclable and 70% recycling
- Removable building
- Enlarged ongoing
The structural system is formed by laminated steel modules, made in factory and assembled on the building work.
By this way, the execution work period gets shorter and there is an important optimization of the working time because of the uniform conditions the factory provides.
The façade enclosure is made by sandwich panels (Agnios) formed by two steel sheets black lacquered with an 80mm rock wool insulate between them. Panels are 900mm wide, and they are fixed to galvanized steel secondary structure.
The fine relief of the panels makes the building changing colours over the day.
We used plaster board partitions, formed by a double 13mm sheet on each side screwed to 70mm steel studs placed each 400mm with an inner rock wool insulation of 40mm and a density of 30Kg/m3
The roof structure of the modules is made with IPE-160 rolled steel profiles, and transversely, at intervals of 600 mm to 1200 mm approximately, galvanized steel sheet straps 20 mm thick are set out.
Roofing has strong presence from parts of the city and either from the ships that arrive at the terminal, so external appearance was very important becoming on the fifth façade of the building.
The terminal building is entirely demountable and recyclable since it is a steel screwed structure. It´s worth mentioning that steel used in the construction has a high percentage of recycled material in its composition (more than 70%). This steel is made by electric oven system.